Articles - Books - Other Media



A few articles and compilations representative of the activities of the Laboratory are given below. Articles consist of scientific reports; compilations consist of a thematic assemblage of scientific materials providing a general view of the state of knowledge in specific fields



-   Aubekerov, B., Sala, R., Nigmatova, S. 2003. 'Changes of Atmospheric Circulation, Paleoclimate and Paleogeography in the Tienshan-Balkhash System', PAGES news, vol. 11, No2-3. (download pdf)

- Aubekerov B.Z., Koshkin V.Y., Sala R., Nigmatova S.A. and Deom J.M., 'Prehistorical and Historical Stages of Development of Lake Balkhash'. In: Watanabe M. and Kubota J. (eds.), 2010. Reconceptualizing Cultural and Environmental Change in Central Asia: An Historical Perspective on the Future. Proceedings of the International Workshop (Kyoto, Japan 1-2 February 2009), Kyoto-Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Ili Project, p.49-76 (pdf )

- Sala R., Deom J.-M., Nigmatova S., Endo K., Kubota J. 'Soviet, recent and planned studies of the behavior of the Balkhash lake'. In: News of the National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, series of Geology and Technical sciences, Vol.2, №416, 2016, pp.76-86 (pdf) 

- Sala, R., Aubekerov, B.Z., Deom J.-M., Geography and cultural landscapes of Kazakhstan. Published in German:
Renato Sala and Bolat Aubekerov, 'Geografie und Kulturlandschaften in Kasachstan'. In: Th. Stollner and Z. Samashev (eds.), Unbekanntes Kasachstan. Archäologie im herzen Asiens. Band I. Katalog der Ausstellung des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum 26 Januar -30. Juni 2013, Bochum, 2013, p. 41-54.(pdf )

Ancient land and water use

-  Clarke, D., Sala, R., Deom, J., Meseth, E. 2005. 'Reconstructing irrigation at the Otrar Oasis, Kazakhstan 800-1700 AD' in  C. Oligh (ed.) Integrated Land and Water Resources Management in History, Schriften der Deutschen Wasserhistorischen Gesellschaft (DWhG), Sonderband 2, Siegburg, pp 251-264. (pdf)

-  Sala R. (2003). Groundwater galleries in Middle East and Central Asia. (pdf)

-  Sala R., Deom J.M., The 261 Karez of the Sauran Region (Middle Syrdarya), in: Transoxiana (Online Journal), №13, August 2008,

-  Sala R., Deom J.M., Clarke D. (2010) 'The “Karez” of the Sauran Region (Turkestan oasis). In: Water Science & Technology: Water Supply, Vol 10, No 4, p. 656–663.[ pdf]

-  Sala R., Deom J.M., 'Evaluation of the ratio of natural and anthropogenic forcing in the regression of the Aral sea during the Medieval Warm Period'. In: PAGES GOA 2013, 4th OSM (13-16th Feb), Program and abstracts, OSM13: Past Warm Periods Informing the Anthropocene, p.113. Poster in pdf

 -  Sala R. 2017 Ancient Water Mining in Tunnels and Wells in West Central Asia. In: A.N. Angelakis, E. Chiotis, S. Eslamian, H. Weingartner (Eds.). Underground Aqueducts Handbook, Ch. 20, London: CRC Press), pp. 333-359. (pdf)


-  Sala, R., Deom, J. (2005) Bronze Age human habitats of Semirechie. In: Vsia Asia No 6, Almaty (in English and Russian). (pdf) (figures)

-  Geoarchaeological survey of Eastern Pamirs (4000 m asl) (html document)

- Sala, R., Deom, J. (2009).'Ancient Wild Game Management in Arid Regions: New Evidences from the Northern Ustyurt Plateau (Kazakhstan)' In: Nauchnye chteniya pamyati N.E. Masanova:sbornik materialov nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii Almaty, 25-26 Aprelya 2008, Almaty, Daik-Press: 135-141.(pdf ) 

- Deom J.-M., Aubekerov B., Sala R., Nigmatova S. 'Quaternary Evolution of the Human Habitats in the Ili-Balkhash Region from Paleolithic to Modern Times'. In: Toward a Sustainable Society in Central Asia: An Historical Perspective on the Future. Proceedings of the International Workshop, Almaty, 9-10 January 2012, Kyoto, 2012, p.49-58. (pdf) 

Rock art

- Sala, R., Semiological methods in rock art studies. In: Rol nomadov v formirovanii kulturnogo naslediya Kazakhstana: sbornik materialov mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii (Masanovskie chteniya – 2009) Almaty, 23-24 Aprelya 2009 g., Almaty, 2010. (In print) (pdf ) 

- Sala R (2012) 'Semantic study of images of bulls and horns in the petroglyph tradition of western Central Asia', Historic cultural heritage and modern culture. Proceedings of the International Scientific-Practical Seminar. Almaty (Service Press), p.105-113 [pdf]

- Sala, R., Deom, J. (2016) Spatial analysis of the Kuljabasy archaeological complex. In: (A. Saduakasuly, B.Baitanaev, B.Zheleznyakov, eds), Drevnosti Zhetysi. Pamyatniki arkheologii Zhambulskogo rayona [Semirechie antiquities. Archaeological monuments of the Zhambyl district], Almaty, p. 73-87 [pdf]


- Sala R., 'The Medieval urbanization of Semirechie'. In: Watanabe M. and Kubota J. (eds.), 2010. Reconceptualizing Cultural and Environmental Change in Central Asia: An Historical Perspective on the Future. Proceedings of the International Workshop (Kyoto, Japan 1-2 February 2009), Kyoto-Research Institute for Humanity and Nature,  Ili Project, p.117-150. (pdf )

-Sala R.,'The Medieval Urbanization of Northern Central Asia and the International Monetary System'. In : Geologiya v XXI veke. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii“Satpaevskie chteniya”. Almaty 14-15 April 2011 [Geology in the XXI century. Proceedings of the scientific conference "Satpaev readings", Almaty 14-15 April 2011]. Almaty, 2011, p.425-430. (pdf ) 

Cultural diffusion

- Sala R., 'The Spread of Buddhism From Gandhara to South, West and East Central Asia (I BC - XIV AD)'. 2017 publication (pdf)

- Deom J.-M. 'Buddhist sites of Afghanistan and West Central Asia'. Article submitted to International Workshop on Gandharan Heritage, Islamabad, Pakistan, 1-3 December 2010 (pdf)  

- Deom J.-M., Islamization and Early Sufism in Central Eurasia during the Pre-Mongolian Period (8th-13th centuries AD) (pdf)




Didactic compilations

-  The Climatic System

-  Geoarcheology in Kazakhstan: paleogeography, paleoclimate, location of monuments (TEXT)

-  Historical survey of irrigation practices in west Central Asia (TEXT)

-  Underground water galleries in Middle East and Central Asia (TEXT)  (FIGURES)

-  Survey, study and protection of cultural properties: operational guidelines








-  Baibatsha, A.B., Aubekerov, B.J. (2003) Quaternary geology of Kazakhstan. Almaty, Niz Flym (in Russian)

-  Rogozhinsky, A. (ed) (2004) Rock Art sites of Central Asia: documentation, conservation, management, community participation. Almaty, NIPI PMK (hard copy in Russian, CD in English). Pages 176, color photos pp 20. Price of hard copy plus mailing: 23 EURO; selling contact:  (TEXT) (FIGURES-TAMGALY) (FIGURES-KULJABASY)

-  Sala, R., Deom, J.M. (2017) Geoarcheologiya aridnoi zony: na primere Kazakhstana [Arid land geoarchaeology with study cases from Kazakhstan],Almaty, "Kazak Universiteti"  206 pages.





-  Sala, R., Deom, J. (2005) Petroglyphs of South Kazakhstan. Almaty, Lab of Geoarchaeology (in English and Russian). Pages 150, color photos 112. (TEXT)  (FIGURES-PHOTOS) (FIGURES-MAPS)





New sale online!  Full-colour guide to the rock art sites of south Kazakhstan, consisting of text, photographs, maps and bibliography. The best book on the subject. A5 format, 150 pages, 112 colour photographs.

On sale at:

For ordering the book through the authors, send an e-mail: The price for the hard copy plus the mailing: 25 EURO.


In preparation:

-  Alan Medoev: selected works. Almaty, Lab of Geoarchaeology (in English)

-  Sala, Deom, Aubekerov (eds) (2010) Men and waters in the development of the Turkestan civilization. Almaty, Lab of Geoarchaeology, Almaty (in English and Russian)






-  "The works of Alan Medoev and the present geoarchaeological researches in Kazakhstan". Celebration of 70th anniversary of the birth of A Medoev (16-IV-2004), Conference hall of the Institute of Geology, Almaty

-  "Petroglyphs of South Kazakhstan". Almaty Gallery Myn Oi, May 2004; Chimkent Regional Museum, June-July 2004; Turkestan Ahmed Yasawi Mausoleum, August-September 2004; Astana, January 2006


Press articles

-  'Avoiding the next Central Asian water-level catastrophe' in INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE, supplement KAZAKHSTAN, 30 June 2009, p.14 (download article)

-  'Save Lake Balkhash!' in TENGRI (Air Astana magazine), 3 (20), May-June 2009, pp.100-103 (download article)



-  Channel-4 & National Geographic (2005) Going to extremes: the Silk Routes - Kazakhstan. Documentary (54 minutes), part 2. Keofilms, director Mat Dickinson. Next shown on National Geographic. Links: Channel 4 History of the Silk Route; Nick Middleton's website

-  'Central Asian lake under threat' (2009) Reportage by Robin Forestier-Walker for Al-Jazeera (, August 24, 2009 ) (download clip)